The Case Against Paul
...they had certain points of disagreement with him about their own religion and about a certain Jesus, who had died, but whom Paul asserted to be alive.
This to me is the central issue here. To the Romans who were trying to adjudicate the matter the summary above certainly does not make this a capital case. The ‘certain points’ most likely include matters of the Law as it pertained to Gentiles, and that was certainly a volatile enough matter, but it is the matter of whether the man named Jesus was alive which truly seems to be in contention.
For Paul, from his conversion onward, it was always the Resurrection that was critical, the Resurrection that made all the difference between living and dying in the eternal sense. Paul’s assertion that Jesus was and is ALIVE was bound to offend those who understood, as it seems the Romans did not, the implications of that assertion.
And that assertion remains as central now as then.